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6th International Conference on Antibiotics & Antibiotic Resistance, will be organized around the theme “”

Antibiotics Resistance 2020 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Antibiotics Resistance 2020

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Antibiotics are a type of antimicrobials used in treatment and prevention of bacterial infections. They may inhibit or kill the growth of bacteria. Many antibiotics are also effective against protozoans and fungi; some are toxic to animals and humans also, even when given in therapeutic dosage. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as influenza or common cold, and may be harmful when taken inappropriately. Physicians must ensure the patient has a bacterial infection before prescribing antibiotics.

 

Antibiotics form part of a wider range of antimicrobial agents, a group which also includes antifungals, antivirals, antiprotozoal and disinfectants. This group is also known as chemotherapeutic agents. The session is open for clinical pharmacology of antibiotics, Drug therapy, Pathophysiology, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics, Drug screening, characterization, synthesis and assays for therapeutic efficacy, Drug disposition, Regulations needed for the approval of antibiotics, Requirements for production of antibiotics, Clinical trials, Structure – Activity relationship, Antibiotic prophylaxis, Synthesis of antimicrobials, New methods of testing antimicrobial activity, Synergism between different types of antimicrobials, Design and testing of antimicrobial surfaces.

Antibiotics belong to a class of antimicrobials, a larger group which also includes anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-parasitic drugs. The main classes of antibiotics are beta-lactams which again include penicillin, cephalosporin, macrolidesfluoroquinolonetetracycline, and aminoglycosides.

Antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria are increasingly prevalent in hospitals and the community. New antibiotics are needed to combat these bacterial pathogens, but progress in developing them has been slow. The session is open to discuss on synthetic tailoring, discovery of new scaffolds, designing screens that avoid rediscovering old scaffolds, repurposing libraries of synthetic molecules for use as antibiotics, Exploring microbial niches for products, molecular target selection, improving libraries to overcome resistance, Safety and efficacy, Vaccines available for the diseases, Phage’s and parasitic bacteriaEpidemiology and spread of microbes and resistance traits.

Antibiotic resistance refers specifically to the resistance to antibiotics that occurs in common bacteria that cause infections. The easy access and effectiveness of Antibiotics led to overuse in live-stock raising promotes bacteria to develop resistance. This led to widespread problems with antibiotic resistance. World Health Organization (WHO) classified antimicrobial resistance as a serious threat and no longer a prediction for the future.  Antibiotic resistance is now among every part of the world and its affecting everyone irrespective to the age. When infections become resistant to first-line drugs, more expensive therapies must be used. A longer duration of illness and treatment, often in hospitals, increases health care costs as well as the economic burden on families and societies. To help prevent the development of current and future bacterial resistance, it is important to prescribe antibiotics according to the principles of antimicrobial stewardship, such as prescribing antibiotics only when they are needed.

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said today that antibiotic-resistant pathogens sicken 2 million Americans a year and listed the three most urgent threats as Clostridium difficile, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antibiotic-resistant microorganisms play a role in 23,000 deaths each year, the CDC said.

In 2009, the ECDC and The European Medicines Agency (EMA) estimated that the overall cost for the EU in terms of extra health care costs and productivity losses totaled at least EUR 1.5 billion each year. For the US, estimates are as high as $20 billion in excess direct health care costs, with additional costs to society for lost productivity as high as $35 billion a year. Studies on deaths attributable to a small and differing selection of MDR infections show that, each year, these infections result in an estimated 25 000 deaths in 29 countries in Europe (5.1 per 100 000 inhabitants) and 23 000 deaths in the US.

 

 Antibiotics are among the most frequently prescribed medications in modern medicine. Antibiotics are useless against viral infections. When you take antibiotics, follow the directions carefully. It is important to finish your medicine even if you feel better. If you stop treatment too soon, some bacteria may survive and re-infect you. Do not save antibiotics for later or use someone else's prescription. Nearly 2 million Americans per year develop hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), resulting in 99,000 deaths – the vast majority of which are due to antibacterial-resistant pathogens. Two common HAIs alone (sepsis and pneumonia) killed nearly 50,000 Americans and cost the U.S. health care system more than $8 billion in 2006. Based on studies of the costs of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens versus antibiotic-susceptible pathogens, the cost to the U.S. health care system of antibiotic resistant infections is $21 billion to $34 billion each year and more than 8 million additional hospital days.

 

Antimicrobial resistance happens when microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites) change for exposing to antimicrobial drugs (such as antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antimalarial and anthelmintic). Without effective antimicrobials for prevention and treatment of infections, medical procedures such as organ transplantation, cancer chemotherapydiabetes management and major surgery become at very high risk. Antimicrobial resistance is a complex problem that affects all of society and is driven by many interconnected factors. Single, isolated interventions have limited impact. There have been increasing public calls for global collective action to address the threat, including a proposal for international treaty on antimicrobial resistance.

 Nearly 2 million Americans per year develop hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), resulting in 99,000 deaths – the vast majority of which are due to antibacterial-resistant pathogens. Two common HAIs alone (sepsis and pneumonia) killed nearly 50,000 Americans and cost the U.S. health care system more than $8 billion in 2006. Based on studies of the costs of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens versus antibiotic-susceptible pathogens, the cost to the U.S. health care system of antibiotic resistant infections is $21 billion to $34 billion each year and more than 8 million additional hospital days.

Antibiotic shortage is of great concern to FDA and healthcare community as many of the antibiotics were the sole drugs to treat certain antibiotic-resistant infections for certain infectious conditions. Drug shortages pose a serious challenge for health care institutions, often interfering with patient care. A common practice during a drug shortage is to select an alternate therapeutic; however, these agents often present challenges and may create safety concerns. Patient harms including adverse events and medication errors may occur. Patients may also file complaints because of drug shortages. The session is open to discuss on Manufacturing site problems, shortage of raw materials, low commercial incentives, lack of approved manufacturers, Defect in packaging and labelling.

 Antibiotics must be used accordingly in humans and animals because both uses share to the emergence, persistence, and escalation of resistant bacteria. Resistant bacteria in food-producing animals are of particular concern. Food animals play as a source of resistant pathogens and resistance mechanisms that can directly or indirectly result in antibiotic resistant infections in humans. Resistant bacteria may be transmitted to humans through the foods we eat. Some bacteria have turned resistant to more than one sort of antibiotic, which makes it more difficult to treat the infections they cause. Sustaining the efficiency of antibiotic drugs is vital to insulating human and animal health.

 Environmental microbes are a leading source of drug discovery, and several microbial products (anti-tumor products, antibiotics, immune suppressants and others) are used frequently for human therapies. Most of these products were accessed from cultivable (<1%) environmental microbes, means that the large number of microbes were not targeted for drug discovery. With the onset of new and emerging technologies, we are poised to harvest novel drugs from the so-called 'uncultivable' microbes. Multidisciplinary way of linking different technologies can assist and reform drug discovery from uncultivable microbes and inspect the current cramp of technologies and scenario to swamp such constraints that might further expand the promise of drugs from environmental microbes.

In the prior most drugs have been invented either by identifying the active ingredient from traditional remedies or by serendipitous discovery. A new access has been to recognize how disease and infection are controlled at the molecular and physiological level and to mark specific entities based on this knowledge. The process of drug discovery involves the identification of candidates, characterization, screening, synthesis, and assays for therapeutic efficacy. Evolution of an existing drug molecule from a ordinary form to a novel delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of patient compliance, efficacy and safety. These days, drug delivery companies are engaged in the development of numerous platform technologies to get ambitious advantage, extend patent life, and increase market share of their products. Formerly a compound has displayed its value in these tests; it will begin the process of drug development prior to clinical trials.

Prescribing doctors are, increasingly, using clinical trial data as a major source of information for evidence-based medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases, as in other clinical disciplines. However, it may be difficult to extract from these data the information that is needed for the management of the individual patient. At the same time, clinical trial data have been used, apparently satisfactorily, in the process of drug registration, and the pharmaceutical industry has spent increasingly large sums of money to satisfy the needs of this process. In the face of all these problems, changes in the way antibiotic clinical trials are designed and performed are clearly necessary, although this must not tip the balance so far as to render them less useful for those who currently derive greatest benefit from them.

 

Antibacterial action generally falls within one of four mechanisms, three of which involve the inhibition or regulation of enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis, nucleic acid metabolism and repair, or protein synthesis, respectively. The fourth mechanism involves the disruption of membrane structure. Many of these cellular functions targeted by antibiotics are most active in multiplying cells. Since there is often overlap in these functions between prokaryotic bacterial cells and eukaryotic mammalian cells, it is not surprising that some antibiotics have also been found to be useful as anticancer agents.

The global systemic antibiotics market was valued at $39.6 billion in 2013 and is expected to reach $41.2 billion by 2018, at a CAGR of 0.8%. Since, 2005 this market is seen to grow at an annual rate of 6.6% until 2011. There are many companies manufacturing antibiotic these days and there are many other antibiotics present in the market such as aminoglycoside antibiotics and it covers about 79% of the global demand. Moreover, the other antibiotics such as penicillin have 8%, tetracyclines 4%, erythromycin 7%, streptomycin 1% and chloramnphenicol has 1 % market.